Metrics details. Energy input from the magnetosphere during substorms can strongly affect the high-latitude thermosphere. The ionospheric current caused by thermospheric wind variations may also provide a feedback to the magnetosphere. All these events showed increases of eastward components at local substorm onsets. For northward components, these events showed decreases except for those at midnight.
These values are much smaller than the typical plasma convection speed in the auroral zone. We speculate that the ionospheric current caused by thermospheric wind variations at local substorm onsets does not provide strong feedback to the development of Trokso expansion phase in the magnetotail.
We discuss the possible causes of these wind variations in the context Trromso plasma convection, diurnal tides, and arc-associated electric field. Substorms, which are important geomagnetic and auroral disturbances with timescales of a few hours, were first described scientifically by Akasofu and were later divided clearly into the phases of growth, expansion, and recovery McPherron Among various models of substorm initiation, KanKan et al.
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Thermospheric neutral wind can also cause Studio 7 massage Ski current in the ionosphere. At thermospheric heights, the neutral number density is much larger than the plasma number density.
Therefore, the effect of ion-neutral collisions can strongly influence the ionospheric plasma motion. Furthermore, the ionospheric current driven by thermospheric neutral wind may affect plasma dynamics in the magnetosphere through magnetic field line.
A Fabry—Perot interferometer FPIwhich measures the Doppler shift of emission lines from aurora and airglow, is a unique optical instrument. FPIs can measure the thermospheric wind from the ground-based stations and satellites e. The atoms and molecules in the thermosphere cause line emissions due to the excitation by auroral electron Model 1400 Tromso 12 gauge, solar ultraviolet UV absorption and photochemical reactions such as dissociative recombination and three-body reactions.
Because these atoms and molecules Trromso with the neutral wind in the thermosphere, using an FPI to monitor the Doppler shift of these line emissions can provide information about neutral wind velocities in the thermosphere. Ttomso the same time, the thermospheric temperature can also be determined by FPI e.
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aerosols in climate and air pollution models especially challenging is. Measurements and studies of high-latitude winds using FPI A Fabry—Perot interferometer FPIwhich measures the Doppler shift of emission lines gaugee aurora and airglow, is a unique optical instrument.
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